Daniel Marques December 18, More by Daniel Marques See more. Daniel Marques. Throughout the book several principles of existence, which allow understanding how it processes, are presented. Since ancient times and for thousands of years, from Mesopotamia, Babylon, Egypt and China to Europe, much was the knowledge found and developed to promote a better lifestyle and health. But, for some reason, we have abandoned this path and entered another, of emotional turmoil, physical pain and diseases. Reviews Review Policy. Published on. Flowing text, Original pages. Best For. Web, Tablet, Phone, eReader.
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Flag as inappropriate. It syncs automatically with your account and allows you to read online or offline wherever you are. Please follow the detailed Help center instructions to transfer the files to supported eReaders. The splendore, the intense bright- ness, the intense brilliance prevails over a gaze that would be sensitive. Art is no longer a trope of the posthumous, but an appearance, a presence, in the poem. A poem on seeing is, in this sense, a poem on the end of giving poetry to be seen.
It is Ruy Belo who says it to us: Deanie Loomis tries in vain to com- ment in class an extract from a poem by Wordsworth. Let us return again to the sonnet. It is not the place of the autotelic Imperative that would make this final place serve as a closing place for the poem. When all is said and done, he sees that the image is image, transport of the non-existence of the object.
Works Cited Belo, Ruy. Obra Pohica. Obra Poetica. De Man, Paul. The Rhetoric of Romanticism. New York: Columbia UP, Magalhaes, Joaqtiim Manuel. Reproduz os dois posfacios publicados pelo autor em Belo, Silvestre, Osvaldo Manuel. Lisboa: Editorial Presenca, He is the translator into Portuguese of the seminal work, Orientalism, by Edward Said.
E-mail: pergs usal. Mendes Abstract. Taking as its point of departure the argument that Jorge de Sena tailed productively in his attempt to overcome Fernando Pessoa, and that Ruy Belo — trying to emulate Pessoa but at the same time writing quite different poetry — emerges as Pessoa's worthy successor, this article proposes a brief analysis of three preliminary aspects of temporality as a contribution to a broader study of time in Ruy Belo's poetry: i, time as a condition of possibility; ii, the paradoxical time after death; and Hi, the temporal sense of the poem's ending.
In the rich history of his country's twentieth-century poetry, Ruy Belo is the worthy successor to the great Fernando Pessoa and may be considered, within an intentionally restricted national lyric repertoire, the second Portuguese poet of the century. Let us therefore put an abrupt end to this reductive paragraph, with its concern for the poet's complete works, in order to focus on a relatively secure point of time.
For time is precisely what it is all about. There were, of course, other similar attempts, but in terms of an explicit confrontation Sena subsumes them all. Ruy Belo attempted to imitate Pessoa and, despite himself, produced poetry that was substantially different from Pessoa's. In another art form, we may be reminded of how Brahms the composer of the First Symphony related to Beethoven of the Ninth: these are imitations that make all the difference.
We do not find in Belo the structural lucidity of Pessoa's prose in verse, but we encounter in it another space 2 ind, above all, another time. Some prevalent critical approaches to Belo tend to label him as an epigone to Modernism which often means to Pessoa or wrap him up in the miseries and anachronisms of the Portuguese literary-historical narrative of the s and s, in this way revealing their own share of analytic distress.
These miseries and anachronisms are of little help in reading Belo's poetry in the context of the twenty-first-century republic of letters; in other words, in making it contemporary. My contribution to such an undertaking is to show how Belo inscribes in the temporality of his verses a stage in the history of how the Portuguese became hedonists, and does so — much better than Pessoa — regardless of the thematic sadness suffusing so many of his poems.
The poet is faced with the difficult problem of the co-existence, within the poetic text, of contradictory stances. This is the most intense contradiction of Belo's poetry, and it is of religious nature, as was the case, in an altogether different context, of Camoes's epic as pointed out by Almeida Garrett in Travels in My Homeland. Unlike what happens in Sena, Belo's inscription of this discrepancy in time fortunately does not beget a set of rules that confine temporality to a dialectical version of history. Let us locus then, hrst ol all, on time as the condition of possibility.
A scrutiny of the conditions of possibility for Belo's orange brings us to the question of time. The answer to this question, in the context of the poem, requires a consideration of, in the first place, the art of painting, along with the hands that paint in order to make sense, and the discipline of this art of emotional restraint, and secondly, the act of looking at painting or, more precisely, of having seen an orange painted in a picture. This anti-Aristotelian explanation is well known to us and has its origin in some of Oscar Wilde's maxims about art and life or in the work of the outstanding art historian Ernst Gombrich.
Art as challenge and aggressiveness is refuted by time through an unannounced shift of register that is such a recurrent surprise of this poetry. Only for a while does the orange deny the course of time. The orange that is eaten becomes part of the cycle of metamorphosis by means of death. In other passages of the text, the poet occupies the place of the orange in time. Do painted oranges die? In the terms of the poem — and these are the only terms we have at our disposal — the relationship between the image of the poem and death is not clarified, so the issue whether the painted orange, or in other words art, entails an effective suspension of time is filed away as a matter that defies resolution.
Time does and does not allow itself to be subsumed by space. Nonetheless, in Belo's works poetic thought on time asserts itself vigorously as a reversal of the linear time inherent to the notion of progress. The much-quoted Nietzschean and Wittgensteinean cognitive vision that informs both Belo's poetry and my own reading invalidates the charge that Ruy Belo is unable to escape the distress of being an heir to Pessoa's Alvaro de Campos. Let us have a look at the standard version of the history of progress. Birds preceded airplanes, airplanes emulated birds.
In this poem, however, airplanes come before birds. In a more abstract formtilation, effects can produce causes; if we were to look for an Illustration of this claim in Belo's poetry, the very particular case of God who in time changes into a god may be read as the cause of man, but in Belo's terms it is man who can be read as the cause of God.
In a necessary aside, let us note that the prevailing point of view in Belo's poetry is manifestly male, and that as such it recalls, by means of a displacement, the representation of modern Man still on display at the Natural History Museum in Washington, DC: a s white-collar male worker with his grey suit, tie, and black briefcase.
Let us collect the objects corresponding to this scheme that have been mentioned so far: the natural orange A and the painted orange B ; birds A and airplanes B.
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The works of art technics, techne precede and produce nature. Let LIS move now to a second aspect of temporality: the paradoxical time after death which, for Belo, is not configured as a liberation from death through salvation. Braqtie is one of the artist heroes whose funeral Belo stages in his poetry. And the funerals in Todos os Poemas are many, allowing lis also to regard this poetry, even in statistical terms, as an obituary. The poem on Braque poses several pertinent problems related to the issue of time in Belo's poetry, most prominent among them the problem of time after death.
What is this particular time like? Foi atraves dum titulo inserido num jornal alheio no metro por acaso de vies olhado qiie eu soube que saiste da velhice para entrar nao se sabe bem onde mas decerto na terra dentro em pouco We know that in Belo's anthropology of death the dead get buried and that the poet has dedicated unforgettable verses to the act of burying.
As we shall see, Belo's poetry as a whole presents a number of postmortem fictionalizations. Braque's death presents an opportunity for art and for Belo's affiliation with modernity. Here we are again in the realm in which trust needs to be deposited on the side of the poem and not in the experiment one may wish to perform, of leaving footprints in the sand, noticing their disappearance, and investigating that something remains.
This is a minimalist version of art's time after death, which secures the permanence of the poem's orange. Braque becomes here the generic modernist hero: Tu e os tens amigos dos princi'pios deste seculo de maquinas de tecnicas de pressa de vertigem devolveram ao mundo o seu passado e rcduziram a distancia entre nos e a nossa origem - 15 The modernist accomplishment is an exploit directly related to time.
To paraphrase quickly what Belo tells us, there was a time when the world was deprived of its past. Lhen, resorting to machines and techniques, Braque and his friends restored the past to the world. Thus, through a contraction of time — that is the implied corollary — we have come closer to our past. This is an exceedingly rough game, even if one keeps present the awareness of verses being nothing but verses.
What are the stakes here?
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Within the temporal economy of the poem, Belo attempts to buy time. Fenn ascribes to it, that is, as a possibility to experience, in a reasonably harmless way, as is the case of poetry, certain emotions related to a situation that threatens to annihilate the subject. As we know, in Belo's work the man who dies is the man who chooses to die.
The poet's venturing into death reaps symbolic gains. The anxiety of time is retrospective; it comes from a future death, and thus is experienced by a subject who has already lived in a bought time. One can hardly think of a better function for poetry as a transport in time. This brief poem and the others in Belo's collected poems, Todos os Poemas, that belong to the same family recall an episode in Francis Ford Coppola's film Rumble Fish, in which the central character, in a compensatory move, dreams of his own death and of the death of those surrounding him.
Belo's poetry requires a rhetoric of temporality for strategic reasons. The tension at the origin of this need results, as we have seen, from the main contradiction that permeates Todos os Poemas; we shall call it religious for short. Instead of the Nietzschean death of God, in this poetry we see God metamorphosing into a god in language. Belo needs time to accommodate his thorny distinctions: the poet of , the poet of , and so forth.
The third aspect of time in Belo's poetry that I will touch upon is mostly implicit in his writing, but it may be discerned in the concluding lines of a number of his poems. Other characters in the poem also join this family of figures that want one thing now and then another, or who are supposed to talk about something and then talk about something else. This is what happens with the writer Vitorino Nemesio appearing on TV , who instead of speaking of Christ speaks of the Neolithic precisely a time when there was no Christianism yet.
With this distinction marked between himself, on the one hand, and, on the other, the younger Joao Miguel a distinguished poet since the s and Belo's wife Maria Teresa, Ruy Belo stages his own identity as that of the resigned protagonist of the end. Consummatum est. I liis reincarnation in pjiglish has benefited vastly from the input of Anna M. Klohucka and Maria Antonia Amarante.
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Very summarily, the first phase was concerned with English poetry, the second with the theory of infitience, and in the third stage of his work Bloom assumed the role of a popular critic. A Map of Misreading. The first and the second Bloom are certainly among the small number of the most decisive literary critics and theorists of the twentieth century. See Frank Lentricchia and Andrew Dubois, eds.
Close Reading. Durham and London: Duke UP, In Belo's poetry, time in not treated as spacelike, but as that which makes it possible for space to exist and encompasses it. Fish confronts us with the concept of modern or modernist analysis that reduces time to space, thus allowing for a unified vision of time. In Ruy Belo, no such unified vision blocks discontinuous temporality, but thematic criticism of his work — invested as it is in the content of time as a theme — is methodologically unable to move beyond making note of the essence of time through its examples, remaining blind to what I am calling the grammar of time in Belo's text.
One of the most consequential formulations of the expansion of the present, coupled with a critique of transcendental assumptions, may be found in the work of Flans Ulrich Gumbrecht. Oxford: Oxford UP, Chicago: I'he University of Chicago Press, It would be a highly promising vein of analysis to read Joao Miguel Fernandes Jorge's poetry as a response to Ruy Belo's. For example, Fernandes Jorge's writing evidences a recovery ot certain notions that had been rejected by Belo.
Victor K. E-mail: vmendes Limassd. In this essay I primarily intend to provide the American public with an introduction to the poetry ol Herberto Helder. The poet is a faker He fakes so completely That he fakes the pain He is actually feeling. It is one, or, rather, it is the only cult that we have been officiating for centuries, with passion and more or less guaranteed success [ All our modernity has lived until today off of this inven- tion ot Poetry as Myth. In reality, more books of poetry are annually written, published and pur- chased in Portugal than in most European countries.
Similar to Spaniards and Latin Americans, the Portuguese reward their favorite writers — particu- larly their poets — with considerable acclaim and public reverence. Poetry readings are popular social events. A popular representation of our most celebrated poet, Luis de Camoes, shows him as a fierce street brawler and a passionate seducer of courtly ladies. Highly romanticized, heroic legends such as these are part of our national folklore.
In Portugal, despite relatively high illiteracy rates and even higher func- tional illiteracy rates literature in general has a widespread, popular, democra- tic prestige — if an elitist readership — and poetry holds an even stronger appeal. Yet these books — in what, sociologically, constitutes a very intriguing behavior — often remain unread, yet proudly on display in many a living room bookcase. They are revered by a large segment of the public while often exhibiting a certain disdainkil aloofness towards the applause of this same public.
Frequently — either out of vanity or out of humbleness — they resent the insistent inquiries of literary supplements, the obligation to par- ticipate in book promotions and, particularly, what they interpret as the intrusiveness of literary journalists and of the public in general. Who is Fderberto Fielder? Fierberto Fielder is widely considered one of the most important poets since Fernando Pessoa, if not the most important. Fie was born in in the Madeira Islands, Portugal. In he published his first book of poetry, O Amor em Visita.
In the rest of the world, with the exceptions of Brazil, Spain and Prance, Herberto Helder is either a completely ignored author or is relegated to the status of an exotic and harmless CLiriosity. In Portugal, Helder is still vastly unknown to the majority of our population, although his name recognition has been steadily growing among the most active members of the reading public.
In this essay 1 primarily intend to provide the American public with an introduction to the poetry of Herberto Helder. The reception It is thus a [critical] move drenched in humility, although it is often performed with righteousness: those other fellows may be interested in displaying their inge- nuity, but 1 am simply a servant of the text and wish only to make it more avail- able to its readers who happen also to be my readers. For the past fifteen years or so, a number of critics have expressed positions that are, at best, contradictory. On the other hand, scholarly stud- ies on Helder are perceived as scarce, timid, or insufficiently productive.
Many critics have already referred to this contradiction. The result of this confessed humiliation is a type of aphasia. Juliet Perkins adapted her doctoral dissertation and published it under the title The Feminine in the Poetry of Herberto Helder. More recently, Silvina Rodrigues Lopes, who had previously writ- ten articles about Helder, published a book exclusively devoted to the poetry of this author: A Inocencia do Devir. Many of the texts that proclaim themselves analyses of Helder s poetry often turn out to be little more than tearful homages to the author.
In other words, critics have contributed to rigidifying the myths, to thickening the mystifications and to cultivating the prejudices instead of dis- pelling them. Few critics have attempted to do what, in my opinion, needs to be attempted: a kind of reading that would contribute to the dismantling of the esoteric reputation that surrounds his works so that freer, less fearful, less apolo- getic — and ultimately, more consequential — studies may come forth. Poetry such as this speaks a demoniacal idiom — it is some kind of absolute force. To that which is close we cannot get closer without risk and, yet, without our approaching it the poem would not exist for us.
Maybe our approximation should be a ritual in which the offerings are words drunk with meanings and danger. Maybe we should be silent and choose instead words whose rumor becomes the brief breath of the wind. Later, as we find out that it is true, we still do not know what to say or what to do [with the poems] — for the fear of jumping into the unknown is great [ We may call him difficult, hermetic, obscure, but that obscurity is the obscu- rity of someone who protects his mysteries to better illuminate them from the inside.
As for us, before such an intense and different light, maybe we are simply blind. This is so because at the heart of the institution is the wish to deny that its activities have any consequences. This idea is in agreement with the generally accepted principles of Modernism and still appears to be among the most popular characteristics of the movement as it has been interpreted by many critics.
This belief may have, in part, legitimated some positions of passive resigna- tion toward what is perceived as the inscrutability of the literary text. Yet, just as she did in , she still defends the incomprehensibility of texts: [T]he poem shuts itself to the devastating curiosity, to the way it is cryptic, and its key does not open, rather, it closes — [the poem] closes itself [to scrutiny, to curiosity] as a tomb, sealed, absolutely non-desecratable, a memory stone, an epi- taph.
One cannot read into things while simultaneously lecturing the reader about the unreadability of things. This particular reading by Lopes exemplifies one of the most disappointing aspects of some contemporary styles of criticism. And even if one of them suddenly pressed me against his heart, I should fade in the strength of his stronger existence.
The original poem by Helder reads: I play, I swear. It was a childhoodhouse. I know how it was an insane house. I would stick my hands in the water: I would fall asleep, I would re-remember. Mirrors would crack against our youth. When asked about the autobiographical overtones in his book of short stories.
Many years ago, Helder offered a journalist the following rhetorical advice: Falk to a child. Is it unintelligi- ble myself being green and the child being orange? It is.
But I comprehend it. Those who do not please go away. The suspicion that the dead — a theme that in Helder has comforting, positive, connotations — interfere and collaborate in the lives of the living is more than just curiously common in Poesia Toda — it is a defining recurrence in this poetic universe: I try Both worlds share a strong magical dimension. I have heard that they breathe, they run across the dew, and then they lay down.
They are sweet equivalencies, lights, pure ideas. Scenes of con- frontation between the poetic subject and God are far from being occasional. This cosmic rivalry is, nevertheless, not a balanced one. Basic children turn me into a raging rose and they throw it against the mouth of God. The power of the poet derives, in part, from the power of his creatures and of his creations.
Poetry is, therefore, the fittest weapon to be used against the greatest possible enemy — the one that cannot be defeated: It is necessary that God free himself from my fabulous gifts [as a poet]. WPoesia Toda These three Helderian themes — three among many more that are possible in Poesia Toda — have one thing is common. They possess an undeniable dimension of sublimity — which, historically, has been in close association with supernatural representations Voller Burke, qtd. On poetry A particular mythicization of poetry is at work in Poesia Toda.
A myth that is, nowadays, strangely cultivated by critics themselves, as noted earlier by Fish. Helder de- legitimates the critical act, which is, to him, incorrigibly illicit or, at least, inherently suspect. Critical commentary is always an act of violence commit- ted upon the literary work: The poem is centered in itself, monstrously solitary?
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It is not in a hurry, it can wait to be taken out of its isolation, it possesses enough expansive forces, take it out of there. Yet, either you take it whole, with its center in its center, and harnessed all around as a living body or you do not take a thing from it, not even a fragment.
And what one often does do is smuggle pieces of it: we remove the wrong part of it, we transfer it to the wrong part of ourselves, towards some wrong place: Philosophy, Morals, Politics, Psychoanalysis, Linguistics, Symbology, Literature. Where is its body and where is its life and its integrity? Where is the solitude of its voice? Because it is mandatory to say this: few people [few readers, few critics] possess pure ears. Or clean hands. To read a poem is to be capable of making it, of re-making it.
In the following passage he is showing an obvious nostalgia for Romantic, pre-mod- ern times. As he denounces the enemies of the poet — which are also, naturally, his own enemies — the excerpt provides us with a Poetics. That which is not searched but found is over, that which is magically and ardu- ously and profoundly found, that is over. This is not the time to praise poets that declare: we are not modern.
What a bunch! Expel them from the Republic. Success, in particular, can be dangerous. One should he available to disappoint those who trusted us. Disappointing them is guaranteeing the move- ment. The confidence that others have in us is entirely theirs. What concerns us is another kind of confidence. I he fact that we are irreplaceable in our adventure and that no one will pursue it for us. Writing about another Portuguese poet, Edmundo de Bettencourt, Helder praises the fact that, at some point in his life, Bettencourt stopped writing when he felt that Portuguese society — then under the New State dictatorship — no longer offered him conditions to pre- serve his integrity as a poet.
Helder praises the fact that Bettencourt was being faithful to his own mission. Very few comparative observations on the two authors were ever published. A text by the late poet and critic Luis Miguel Nava is among the few that compare the two authors. Nava once said that, similarly to what Pessoa had represented in the time of Orpheiu both Ruy Belo and Fierberto Fielder constituted important land- marks beyond which the landscape radically changed.
In different ways, both Ruy Belo and Fierberto Fielder represented the convergence and the matura- tion of a host of different tendencies that originated in previous generations Nava Both Helder and Pessoa lived during periods that were later considered crossroads in Portuguese letters.
Both authors — in various ways, and to vary- ing degrees — have inHuenced all of the generations that followed their own. He even invented a poet who, wrote as one of our most unlikely bards — the unsophisticated, barely literate, Alberto Caeiro, the shepherd. His poetry pursues and celebrates the de-humanization of the poet, the isolation of the poetic subject, his incommunicability. Pessoa wished to implement, in a sense, liter- ary democracy.
Helder is exactly at the opposite end of the spectrum. What appears as SLibjective emptiness in Pessoa is equivalent to excessive, celebratory, defiant identity in Helder. A super-assertive, highly self-centered personality contrasts with a fragmented, multiplied or emptied subjectivity. As is well known, Pessoa once prophesized the advent of a poet who would surpass Camoes in cultural and national importance. This poet would appear one hazy morning in the Portuguese Republic of Letters and rescue its literattire from the threat of insignificance.
One may argue that Helder is here building his own Super-Pessoa prophecy. One needs to be between two moral worlds in order to transgress the rules of one of them; in order to be accused of the sin of insincerity. Might sincere souls be lake me, without knowing it? Before the lie of emotion And the fiction of the soul, I cherish the calm it gives me To see flowers without reason Flowers without a heart.
Fielders poet displays the haughty humanity of a demigod in the same way that angels and demons share human traits with humans without being human. Fiis domain — the magical — is that of the non-human and that of the non-real. There are no tobacco shops in these otherworldly landscapes and, if there were, their owners would certainly — frighteningly — not be smiling by the door. The anthology was immediately heralded as a representative sample of the main poems and poets of the twentieth century in Portugal.
The book — due to the ambitious nature of the project — had an unusually important impact beyond the community of critics and academics. A protest over the exclusion of one poet — Manuel Alegre — was made by one parliamentary group; the entire event drew considerable national media coverage and lively debate in differ- ent national venues. In each new edition, major revisions and changes were introduced by the author — to the point of causing dilemmas in the critical community as to which edition should be used when ana- lyzing a particular poem. Nevertheless, ignoring the perceived suggestions of the author, most critics myself included have continued to utilize the previous editions of the book as the scholarship on the author slowly evolves and proliferates.
Herberto Helder is, in my opinion, a borderline case. Doctoral dissertations: Dal Farra, Maria Lucia. Helder is known For refusing to grant interviews to any Portuguese publications since the s. He has rejected important literary awards and monetary prizes. In his own writings and on the tew occasions when he has publicly commented on the reception of his works — he has displayed an attitude of general hostility toward the work of the critics, the publishing establishment, and the marketing of literature.
On many occa- sions Helder presents his own translated excerpts of Biblical texts. Quoted from the edition vol. The last verses read as follows: The man has come out of the Tobacco Shop putting change in his pocket? The Tobacco Shop Owner has come to the door. As if by divine instinct, Esteves turns around and sees me. Lisbon: PreseiKja, Burke, Edmund. Coelho, Eduardo Prado. A Node do Mundo. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional, Dal Farra, Maria Lucia. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional — Casa da Moeda, Coimbra: Almedina, Ferguson, Frances.
Solitude and the Sublime: Romanticism and the Aesthetics of Individuation. New York: Routledge, Fish, Stanley. Is There a Text in this Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge: Hars'ard UP, Freitas, Manuel de. Guerreiro, Antonio.
Guimaraes, Fernando. Helder, Herberto. O Amor em Visita. Lisbon: Contraponto, Apresentacdo do Rosto. Lisbon: Ulisseia, Jornal de Letras e Artes [Lisbon] 27 May : A Colher na Boca. Lisbon: Atica, By Antonio Jose Porte. Os Passos em Volta. Ou 0 Poema Continuo. Poesia Toda. Lisbon: Plarano, Lisbon: Portugalia, Publico [Lisbon] 4 Dec. Ultima Ciencia. Ladeira, Antonio. Osvaldo Manuel Silvestre and Pedro Serra. Lisbon: Cotovia, Ana Harherly e Silvina Rodrigues Lopes. U of California at Santa Barbara, Letzring, Monica. Lind, Georg Rudolf. Estudos sobre Eernando Pessoa. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, Longinus, Cassius.
James Arendt and John M. New York: E. Mellen, Lopes, Silvina Rodrigues.
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Lisbon: Litoral, A Inocencia do Devir. Lisbon: Vendaval, Macedo, Helder and Ernesto Melo e Castro, eds. Contemporary Portuguese Poetry Manchester: Carcanet, Marinho, Maria de Fatima. Lisbon: Arcadia, Martins, Manuel Frias. Herberto Helder: Um Silencio de Bronze. Lisbon: Horizonte, Magalhaes, Joaquim Manuel.
Lisbon: A Regra do Jogo, Perkins, Juliet. The Perninine in the Poetry of Herberto Helder. London: Tamesis, Pessoa, Fernando. Richard Zenith. New York: Grove, Lisbon: Ulisseia. Pinto do Amaral, Fernando. Rilke, Rainer Maria. Duino Elegies. Leishman and Stephen Spender. New York: W. Norton, Hanover: UP of New England, Silvestre, Osvaldo Manuel e Pedro Serra, ed.
Voller, Jack G. Dekalb: Northern Illinois UP, He was a lec- turer in Portuguese and Lusophone literatures at Yale University He holds a Ph. His dissertation is on poetic subjectivity in Herberto Helder. His current research interests include con- temporary Luso-Brazilian poetry and fiction and Portuguese-American literature.
He has also published two books of his own poetry. Email: antonio. Os Passos em Volta de Herberto Helder, publicado pela primeira vez em , e o unico volume de contos numa obra predominantemente poetica. O modo discursivo por excelencia destes contos e o ironico.
Eu sugiro que estes dois factores inviabilizam as estrategias de leitura monologicas atras mencionadas. Na sua monumental historia pessoal, o fracasso de instituiu-se como inkio em maturidade de uma poetica radicada na inevitabilidade do dizer e do fazer poeticos. Para exemplificar a sua teoria, o homem ironico alude a historia do medico que Ihe receitou remedios para a loucura, e a do homem velho que, apesar de nao ter ja muito que esperar da vida, nao prescindia do amor, e entao amava as flores. Enfim, nao seria isso mais nobre, digamos, mais conforme ao grande segredo da nossa humanidade?
Aplico-o a noite, quando acordo as quatro da madrugada. E simples: quando acordo aterrorizado, vendo as grandes sombras incompreensiVeis erguerem-se no meio do quarto As vezes uso o processo de esvaziar as palavras Digo-a baixo vinte vezes. Ja nada significa. A ironia aparece intimamente ligada a um conceito tambem composicional em Herberto Helder: a metamorfose.
O pintor, mais do que o filosofo, e interprete do principio transcendente com o qual o homem comunica atraves da arte. A verticalidade do ponto de vista e entendida como a que mais fielmente representa o real a paisagem por ser a unica capaz de o contemplar atraves de varias perspectivas. Herberto Helder ensaia assim nestes textos uma poetica do realismo que decorre nao so da constante auto-reflexao da pratica artistica, mas que pretende ser igualmente uma tomada de posigao na polemica que desde os anos 40 opunha neo-realistas, presencistas e surrealistas.
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