If your enemy cuts at your head or leg I want you to parry with a rising falso and with two tramazzoni at the head, finally coming into the porta di ferro stretta. And if he responds in a similar manner I want you to strike with a falso and pass the left foot toward the right side of your enemy and cut with a roverso to the rim of your brochiere which goes strongly to the face. Your left foot will go close by the right and you will strongly embellish the play. That is in the manner of chiocarre di brochiere, and going up again in the guardia alta as I trained you to do.
Now, being in the guardia alta, there is a need that you issue a thrust in the manner of a montante, that is passing with your left foot to the right side of your enemy. The point will be shoved strongly to the left side of the face and in fear of said thrust he will cover said side.
Then you will give a mandritta di falso to the head between the sword and buckler passing in this cut with your right foot against his left side and the left leg following the right to the rear. Your sword should not pass into the guardia di intrare stretto. Then there is need that he attacks you above taking and attacking you will engage the attack with the right edge of your sword.
Then give a reverse thrust to the right temple. In this manner do not pass into the guardia di coda lunga alta. Then throwing the right foot close to the left embellish the play in a useful manner. That is, chiocarre, and montare di montante with his passing yet returning to the guardia alta as I have before said with the arms and legs extended in a useful manner and well formed. Now note and remain attentive that when you go about deceiving one at play, I want you to cover, that if he does a montante that you are first to cover and immediately covering you will cut to the face in the rim of your buckler with a fendente and with the right foot forward.
Do not go into the porta di ferro alta. Then if your enemy throws low or high or with a ponta , a mandritto, or tramazone and also a roverso, at this attack you will throw a rising falso with the sword and with your brochiero together accompanied with the same to the temple followed with your foot. That is, the left doing a pass to his right side with a tramazone and end in the porta di ferro stretta.
Reverse thrust if your enemy cuts to your head and in this cut parry with a falso and a mandritto and a roverso tondo still cutting with another roverso spinto at the rim of the brochiero, hurling in the same time the right foot behind the left and throwing the left close by the right. Here you will embellish the play.
That is, in chioccare and montare in a useful manner as aforementioned. You will go into a well formed guardia alta with your arms and legs well extended. Now, remaining in the guardia alta, there is need that you throw a mandritto tondo below the arm. That is to say he will answer you as in all the parts above, but answering you in the aforementioned parts, in this attack, hurl your left foot opposite his right side you will engage your sword with the hand of the brochiero in the style of a spada in armi and parry the attack of your enemy, thrusting at the face and with a fendente mandritto to the head between the sword and buckler.
With your right foot in the same time pass to the right in the porta di ferro alta. Then at the response of your enemy you will thrust to his face accompanied with your brochiero and give him a roverso to his right thigh. At the same time cut with another reverse thrust at the rim of the brochiero following with the right foot behind the left.
In this manner said left will be close by the right and it is strong. You will then embellish the play with chioccare and montare in a useful manner returning to the guardia alta as aforementioned. Now, being still in the said guardia alta, you will throw two mandritti tondi at the face passing in the same time the right foot forward. After the final mandritta do not stop , but push a ponta outside his sword, high on the right side, going strongly to the left temple. Then for his fear of the ponta dritta he will open forward. In this you will strike with your hilt his sword and you will attack him with a mezo mandritto in falso and your sword will be low with the right foot forward passing to his left side.
In the same time strike anew with said hilt and give a mezo roverso spinto to his right temple passing with your left foot to his right side and immediately for your defense hurl the right foot behind the left with a ponta in the guardia di faccia. You will embellish your play with tagliare, montare, and chioccare di brochiero in a useful manner. Here now you will return to play behind this of which I have imparted. And in this manner is the finish of the second assault. In the name of Jesus Christ, I will here talk about the third assault, which will show the art of the half sword.
I will do so because, if you wish to teach, you should know that the art of the half sword is the best part of swordplay; therefore, those who teach or who consider themselves good fencers but do not know this art, cannot really be called proficient. Therefore, I want you to know that this is the foundation of the art of fencing.
Not so much with the small brochiero than with all other sorts of arms, such as staff and edged weapons. In light of this, I advise you to teach these techniques to those who have courage, because they will try them without a second thought: these will also be the ones who will do you honor. But to those others who you will judge as lacking courage, you should give instructions about the first assault, because should you teach them about the second or third, these lessons would be lost upon them, since they would not have the necessary courage now or at any other time. Al nome de M.
I also advise you that as you start teaching someone, you should not begin with something difficult, since that would seem too hard to them; doing so would turn them away and would cause them to not learn as eagerly as those who start with something more gradual. Anyway, I will expand your mind later. Now, I want to start with the first part of said third assault.
However, I wish to give you a lesson about teaching. Please note that if you wish to teach, I advise you not to teach all the painstaking details of the third assault in public, in order to avoid others trying to copy it. In other words, you should make sure that others do not see your principles.
Also, you should avoid this for another reason. If you teach them such play and close techniques, you cannot step to the next level since there is a difference between wide and close play. Besides, a beginner would be confused by all the half-swording techniques. Therefore, they would not be satisfied, but would always expect you to move on to something better, not appreciating the good instruction you are giving.
It is for these reasons that you should start with other things. That is, teach them the fundamental things; once they have learned the said fundamentals, I want you to give them the principles of this third assault. In this manner, you will make them happy. Please know that I exhort you to teach these things so that you do not forget them; also, sometimes you will have to re-read this book so that you will not forget. Do as the proverb says: he who pays well learns well, and he who pays poorly learns poorly.
Therefore, teach well those who pay well, because you will conscientiously repay them. It is a great sin of the soul not to teach well those who pay their debt to their teacher. Please note that it is needful that you go to find your enemy with one of those, going to play that has an opinion of you. When you are close by to him, you will get into the porta di ferro alta and he will be as you or in sopra braccio, or guard ia alta.
Then you will push a ponta in falsa at him to the outside of his sword going strongly against his left temple with left foot stepping forward with the attack. For your defense you will hurl your left foot back and throw a roverso scannato a roverso that cuts the thro at to the head and arm in the manner that the sword goes into the coda lunga e stretta. Then if your enemy responds to your head or to the leg you will defend with a rising falso traversato accompanied with the brochiero.
In a time you will slice with a roverso to the right leg and for your defense hurl the right foot behind the left. You will then cut with a fendente roverso at the rim of the brochiero with the left foot coming close by the right. Here you will embellish your play in a useful manner with chioccare e montare with a ponta in the act of a montante that does not pass into said porta di ferro alta as aforementioned. If you were in the said porta di ferro alta, and the opponent attacked you with a thrust, in that tempo you will perform an elsa e fugge; your sword should end up in porta di ferro larga.
Without stopping, you will turn a roverso in coda lunga e distesa and in this manner you will frustrate his design and cause him some harm. After the said roverso, you will withdraw the left leg behind the right, embellishing the play in the usual fashion. Elza e fugie is when your opponent delivers you a dangerous blow as you are in porta di ferro alta or stretta or larga, or sopra il braccio, or in coda lunga e stretta, or in chinghiara porta di ferro - no matter what posture you are in, as long as it is a low guard.
In the time that he delivers the blow, you will give a strong upward falso [to his sword] followed by a mandritto fendente [to his body], at the same time pulling your right leg behind the left. This is called elza e fugie. Please know that this technique is a good counter against one who wants to penetrate your guard therefore make a note of it and be careful. As you are in the said porta di ferro alta and if your opponent is right-foot forward no matter in whathigh guard , you should pass with the left foot toward his right side and while you step you should feint a tramazzone, then push a thrust to his face, as you cover [your blow] with the brocchiero.
As he draws his sword to the outside in order to parry your thrust, you should pull your sword under his and push another thrust between his sword and his buckler. This thrust should be done upward toward his face. For your defense, you should cut with a roverso fendente to the rim of the buckler, at the same time pulling your right foot behind the left, then pulling the left again behind the right. Here, you will embellish the play in the usual fashion, that is by means of chioccare [striking the hub of the buckler with a cut as he describes in another chapter?
In this manner, you will return in the same position described above. Being in said porta di ferro alta as he is, take notice and guard the sword hand as he will want to pass with the left foot with the look of making a tramazzon in order to push a thrust at you. Then you will escape with your right leg going behind the left with a traverse. In this escape you will throw two, strong, tramazzoni at his sword hand and in this manner you will lower your guard into the cinghiara porta di ferro.
For your defense when he then attacks you, immediately step forward with the right foot and throw a rising falso with a mandritto tondo under the arm together with a roverso. Here you will embellish your play, that is you will cut with another roverso to the rim of the brochiero throwing the right foot behind the left, the left being close by the right. Then you will use a chioccare di brochiero or you will rise a thrust as aforementioned and you will go into the porta di ferro alta with your arm and legs well formed.
If you are in the said porta di ferro and your enemy is in the guardia alta as you, or else he attacks upwards, in this time that he raises then pretend to thrust at his face with the left foot passing forward. In this passing step you will engage the sword with the hand of your brochiero in the style of a spada in armi. In the same time you will give a calzo kick with the right foot to the petenecchio groin or return again behind the left not stopping the left but giving a fendente to his head.
In this manner your sword will go into the porta di ferro stretta. Then if your enemy responds with an attack you will strike said with a rising falso followed with a mandritta to the leg and a roverso to the face stepping in this attack a little forward with the right foot. For your defense you will step back with the right foot and you will cut with a fendente roverso at the rim of the brochiero and throwing the left leg close by the right and in this manner you will embellish your play.
That is in chioccare and thrusting upward as aforementioned. You will end in the porta di ferro alta. If your opponent feints at you with the said thrust as you are in the guardia alta or if your sword has reached a high position after you performed a montante , I advise that you are especially careful never to take your eye away from his sword-hand. This way, you will not move as a consequence of his feint. If he tried to kick you with his right foot, you can counter his move in two ways. Firstly, as he lifted his right leg to kick you, you could strike him in the shin of the said right leg with the rim of your buckler, as your sword parries his fendente to the head.
This is one of the counters you could perform. The other is that if he intended to pass with his left foot as he feinted a push, or if he actually intended to push, with that motion you would hurl your right foot behind the left as he pushes. At the same time, you would thrust at him in montante fashion. This will proceed upwards towards his face, and your sword will end in cinghiara porta di ferro alta. From here, you will embellish the play. You will withdraw your left foot near the right, then you will be able to step out with said left foot and strike your brochiero and go up in the usual fashion to porta di ferro alta.
Being as aforementioned in said porta di ferro alta and your enemy being as you, then you will approach him close by and you will throw a tramazzon to his head. In this manner your enemy will defend with the sword and brochiero at the right side of the head. Then during his defense you will abandon your sword and brochiero dropping them to the ground and you will grab with your right hand his brochiero and with the left you will grab his sword. That is to the inside of the brochiero. You will then turn your hand to a roversa.
In this mode you will draw out his weapons from his hands without failing. Now being in the porta di ferro alta as is said, and your enemy throws a tramazzon to make you parry, I want you to defend with your sword and brochiero together with your arms extended out forward. And when he has hurled his sword and brochiero down for engaging you by hand, you will remain on your guard for he will throw his hands and your right leg will move with a gran passo behind the left and you will throw a fendente to the head.
You will then be in the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta and in this manner your enemy will be amazed without a weapon and you will have given him a hit to the head and note this. If you are in porta di ferro alta, or stretta or are in coda lunga e stretta, here I want you to push a thrust with the left foot forward to the outside of his sword to his face with the intention that he is in the porta di ferro alta or sopra braccie. And this he will do in order to get outside with a falso to the sword as to parry your thrust Then as your falso touches his you will engage his sword with the hand of your brochiero on the inside.
In this manner you will give a twist downwards and you will have the sword in hand. And giving it with power you will know that you will not fail. If you are in the porta di ferro alta or in the sopra braccie and your enemy pushes a thrust to the outside of your face with his left foot going to presa, I want you in this push that you accompany the false edge of your sword with his while not moving the feet.
W hen he hurls the hand of his brochiero to engage the sword you will in the same time slice a cut at his face and together with a tramazzon your right foot will follow in a manner that you end in porta di ferro cinghiara stretta. In this manner do not go to presa and you will have cut his face, and the tramazzon will strike his right hand. With this you will embellish the play in the manner aforementioned. Being still in the porta di ferro alta or stretta and if your enemy throws a cut to your head, I want you to throw your left foot strongly forward to the right and take the attack on the sword with your brochiero accompanying it.
And in this parry you will turn the hand to the inside and engage his sword with your hand of your buckler and give a turn downwards to take his sword from his hand and give a thrust to his chest or to the face. And in this you will not fail as I said before. If you are in the guardia alta or in the porta di ferro and being agente, that is the principal one to attack with mandritti or tramazzoni, in this I want to warn you that when you do such edge cuts or tramazzoni that he will want to come to grips with you. Know for certain when you throw a right edge cut follow it quickly with a roverso with the right foot following behind the left.
In this you will end in the coda lunga e alta. In this manner he will not be able to come to grips. Then when you throw a tramazzon at someone, I would exhort you to not throw just one, but always two or three. Do not remain still for you always throw another one following and so end in the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta. This thing do so you will not be griped and you will be certain.
If you are in the coda lunga e stretta or in the porta di ferro alta as aforementioned, or in the guardia alta and your enemy is moving into the guardia alta, in the same time regains the guardia alta then you will pass your left foot forward and push a thrust in falso to his right temple. In the same time you will feint with a mandritto to his left side with your right foot opposite his left side and then you will give a roverso to the right thigh. For your defense you will hurl your right foot behind the left and cut a roverso fendente to the rim of the your brochiero and here you will embellish the play in a useful manner.
Now I want to give you a beautiful counter to one who attacks you with a tramazzon when you are in the porta di ferro larga, or stretta or alta with the intention of counterstepping with the left foot traversing against your right side and beating your sword or head. Watch well for when he countersteps with the left foot and throws the tramazzon you will withdraw your right leg a little and your sword arm.
More when considering that said tramazzon is not able to hit you. And immediately upon the passing of the tramazzon step with your right foot and give a roverso tondo to the face, cutting in said roverso a fendente roverso to the rim of the buckler and the right foot will go behind the left. In this manner you will embellish the play as aforementioned.
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Again, I want to give you another counter for one who throws a roverso at the leg. When you take up the sopra braccio and one attacks, you will move your left foot opposite the right side of your enemy and put the flat of your sword under his roverso and then you will give a roverso to his neck or head and settle into the coda lunga e alta and you will be in order to parry his attack. Ancora io te voglio dare un altro contrario per uno che tresse de roverso per gamba quando tu fosse sopra braccio.
And still in said roverso to the leg, step with the right leg over the left and you leaving will let the roverso pass. And you will move the right leg forward and give a roverso to his right temple and your sword will go into the coda lunga e stretta and you will settle in a well formed manner with the arms extended. You should know that in this roverso to the leg, I want you to pull your right foot close by the left and said roverso will pass and in passing you will put the left foot forward opposite his right side and you will give a roverso spinto to his right temple. In this manner you will return to the coda lunga e alta.
Know this for pulling the right foot where the left is in such time, putting forward if it demands a disguising of the feet, then note for another turn. When you com e into the porta di ferro alta and your enemy is in the same guard, I want you to strongly touch the false edge to his false edge. Then you will pass your left foot strongly opposite his right side and push a thrust strongly to his face turning the wrist downwards and your right edge will be against his false edge and your hand will rise strongly.
In this manner you will raise his sword hand and you will then come to grips with the hand of the buckler on the inside as aforementioned. You will then remove the sword from the hand as you wish. You should know when you are in the porta di ferro alta and your enemy is in the same, and you are being patiente, that is to see what your enemy may want to do, I want you to remain attentive. For when you touch false edge to false edge you should watch his sword hand well.
You should do this for the reason of said presa or another attack. Seeing the pass of said right foot to the outside with the sword thrusting to disconcert you and to make follie of your right arm: here he gives consideration on giving you said presa or another attack. W hen he makes the pass, you will throw your right foot in a gran passo to the rear of the left and you will make a half turn of the hand in the manner that you place your true edge to his false edge and you will be in the coda lunga e alta.
In this manner he will not displease you and you will do well. Please note that everything you see written from here on that is, starting from the third assault pertains to the half-sword. It is nonetheless true that these things can only be performed false edge against false edge. Some of them can be performed from a greater distance [from the opponent], others closer. However, they all pertain to the half sword or to the close [measure] as said. I also wish you to know that all this pushing of the half-sword of which I will speak from hear on in the third assault can only be performed with the part of the sword between the tip and the false edge.
For this reason, these techniques are called false-edge stretti.
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You know from the third assault as well as from other things I showed you what can be done with the false edge against false edge. However, please note that, to be true to the rule, I have only included teachings that are effective, concise and useful to your students. I am well aware that, were one to include absolutely everything, ten books bigger than this one would not suffice. This if filo dritto in Italian. Although, as you know, the art of writing is not established by those who understand our discipline and who are willing to stir their step! Anyway, for now I will say no more. I want to start the section about true edge against true edge, so now please be patient [and hear me out].
Know that wanting to go and find the true edge to true edge, there is a need that you be in a low guard, preferably the porta di ferro stretta or alta, or in the coda lunga e alta. Also in the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta or larga or even if you go with him in the guardia distesa; nevertheless if in one of these guards, you will see here what is written: The first need for going true-edge to true-edge is that you go into a porta di ferro alta or stretta, in coda lunga e stretta and in some other posture that you know.
And this I will say, that in this manner you will enter into the coda lunga e alta for it guards well. Still if he does the same thing with other arms, especially two handed sword or single sword, or sword and large brochiero or targa or rotella. I am not saying that you can use all these techniques, but the major part of them, both with the true and the false edge. Therefore, let me suggest to you that, even though I have taught you these things personally, I have disposed things so that should you not practice this art for a while, you can go back to this book, and you will remember everything by reading it.
But let me reassure you that even if you keep practicing this art of fencing, you may sometimes want to read this book for your edification while you exercise and become a good practitioner. For I want you to know that at times, good practice is worth as much as good knowledge, so do not be surprised [by my advice]. In the name of God I will commence the first part of the true edge 2 with the true edge.
You will regain the coda lunga e alta with the left foot forward. But I will put you in this guard for a little bit for it is not very appropriate for the brochiero stretto. Now watch well for being in this coda lunga e alta and your enemy comes to where you are, here you will push a thrust inside his sword and brochiero that will go to the face.
He, in his parry, will uncover his right side. Then you will pass your left foot forward opposite his right side and will feint with a roverso but still being close to his sword. And in this feint of a roverso you will lower the sword with the point towards the earth in the fashion of a molinello and you will lower yours and engage his in the manner that you raise his hand.
That is you give a downwards twist. In this manner he will be without his sword If you are in a low guard with your right foot forward and your enemy wants to enter countering with the right edge, that is with half sword, then you will want to deceive him by raising while he is entering confidently, but guard against his sword hand for when he passes with the left foot with the feint you will not move. But when he throws his sword towards the earth then you will lift your sword hand and go into the guardia alta followed by moving your right foot behind the left.
You will then give a fendente to his head and in this manner your sword will go into the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta If you remain in the cinghiara porta di ferro to counter this first narrow right edge to right edge, I want you to be agent. That is you will do the first entrance into the said right edge. You will pass your right foot forward finding him in the porta di ferro alta, or stretta, or larga and you will enter with said right edge in the style of a guardia di faccia Raise your right hand a little so that your sword point goes to the face and he for fear of the thrust will push your right arm to his weak side.
You will in the same time pass your left foot opposite his right side and you will engage his sword arm with the hand of your buckler. You will then give a roverso to the head or a thrust to the neck. If you do not want to do this presa, you will be able to give the rim of the brochiero to the outside of said arm right and in the time you will give a roverso to the head. Know that this is a great blow. For your defense you will remain with the sword and brochiero in the coda lunga e alta. When you do this said roverso you will counter pass the left foot following it with the right to the rear always.
If you are in the porta di ferro alta, stretta or larga and your enemy wants to enter into true-edge to true-edge, I want you to know that you will want him not to come, keeping all in order that I have taught you. But still, you will want to be patiente and allow said engagement in the true-edge. As soon as he enters, guard the hands for the occurrence of these prese. If he turns his false-edge to your true-edge with his hand high, you will not move.
But as he passes his left foot forward to do a presa or give the brochiero to the sword arm, then you will hurl your right foot strongly behind the left and you will feign a roverso to his right arm or neck and slicing you will make said roverso more for defense to escape with the left foot behind the right.
You will then put your sword in the guardia di faccia accompanying your sword arm with that of the brochiero. If you are here in the coda lunga e alta or the porta di ferro stretta or alta, or you are in the coda lunga e stretta and your enemy is in the porta di ferro alta or stretta, here you will enter in quickly to the true-edge to true-edge, with the right foot forward and strong to the right. Doing this you will hurl your left foot opposite his right side: making it look like you will give a roverso to the head.
In this manner you will hurl him behind your shoulder or carry him away. And in this you will not fail. You being in the porta di ferro alta or stretta and your enemy engaging you true-edge to true-edge, have courage that you wanting to be patiente, you will need to guard the hands. For this reason I want you to know that guarding the hands, he will not be able to do this thing to you without seeing. W hen he passes his left foot to your right side do not move until he hurls his sword away. And this he will not be able to fail. Still, I want you to know that you can hit him in the head with the rim of your brochierro.
Now watch well for being in the porta di ferro alta or in the coda lunga e alta or coda lunga e stretta, and in consideration that you want to be agente. That is you will be the first to enter the half sword and in the utmost true-edge to true-edge. You will need to go safely that you find the guardia alta or porta di ferro alta.
Then finding him in said two guards you will enter in quickly to true-edge to true-edge. This with your sword hand above your brochiero and this I would do that if he is in the guardia alta he will not be able to strike your right hand. Immediately on coming to the true-edge you will turn the false edge of the sword to his true edge in the manner that you will slice his face with a roverso. Then in his fear of the roverso he will raise his right arm and you will in the same moment do a dritto redoppio inside his right arm with a traversato of the leading leg to the outside of his right arm.
For your defense you will embellish your play in a useful manner and you will return to the porta di ferro alta with your brochiero well formed. If you return to the guardia alta or porta di ferro alta, know that here is the consideration that you will be able to be agente or patiente. But still, you seeing your enemy in one of these aforementioned guards, thinking he has a large imagination of coming to you true-edge to true-edge, watch well, for when he comes turning his false edge to your true-edge to slice your face you will throw your right foot behind the left and then throw a large tramazzon to his sword arm or hand.
In this manner your sword will return to the porta di ferro cinghiara and in this manner you will have broken his intention. He will also not be able to do a roverso to your leg or a mandritto redoppio. Still, he will not have a roverso to the leading leg. In this manner I will be able in the same turn, being patiente, to prove the man as you will be forward and behind. Watch well, for being led to true-edge to true-edge with your enemy, here you will strike his sword with your hilt to the inside in the manner that you will give a roverso to the right temple.
During this you will pass your left foot opposite his right side and placing your brochiero against his sword arm. For your defense you will throw your right foot behind the left and you will put your sword and brochiero into the guardia di faccia. Watch well for when you lead to said true-edge and your enemy waits to strike your sword with his hilt so as to give you a roverso to the temple, I want you to know there is a need in this strike for you to throw your right foot behind your enemy and to make a half turn of the hand to your right side and engage your sword with the brochiero in the style of an arming sword.
At the same time you will throw the right foot behind the left and make a fendente to the head. In this way your sword will be in the porta di ferro stretta. That is against his left side. In this strike you will throw your left leg overlapping the outside of his right and your hand of your brochiero feeling his arm and you will put a traverso to his throat to the inside side.
In this way you will in said arm in the outside strongly. And your left leg inside in the style of a gambarola, still you will drop him backwards to the ground and feeling in this passing of the leg and arms put you in the aforementioned place that you do not abandon your sword from his.
Know that when you lead to said true-edge you will push strongly with the hilt against your enemy's sword to the inside. Transcribed by Michael Chidester. Being led to said true-edge and your enemy striking his hilt against your sword, when he passes his left foot to do the gambarola with his right arm to your throat, and to throw you back, then on seeing the pass of his left leg to your right side, quickly throw your right leg behind the left and in this manner you will give a roverso to the leg.
In this manner you will dupe him. Do not pass into the guardia di coda lunga e alta but stay narrow with the sword and brochiero. But guard for when you are leading true-edge to true-edge, here it is considered if you are quick of hand or not. If you are quick, that is, your hand strikes rising with the hilt to his sword and you will give him a roverso to the thigh while not moving. Neither foot or leg.
Quickly for your defense you will return above as in the arming sword and know that this is a clean attack that is pleasing to one who has quickness of hand and for one who is lazy is good for nothing. Then knowing that when you will be in said true-edge with your enemy, you will need to remain wary. If he has quickness of hand you must attack without him perceiving you. But remaining attentive of him, that when he strikes to your sword to go to the roverso, then do a roverso to the rising leg, to the neck or to the sword arm.
In this I would not fail. That is to say you know that this is a roverso to the leg; I will specify to you here. I want you to throw a roverso traversato, following your right leg back and not putting to earth until the said roverso is thrown. Please know that being in said true-edge or wanting to be in false-edge, you will be able to do more prese of the sword and many feigns, and turns of the wrist, and feigns of roverso, and striking of the true edge, and feigns of the true edge and striking of roverso: and also feigns of roversi and strikes of the falsi.
Therefore do not be amazed when one resorts to the two modes of the half sword, if I will be able to do many things. But I will tell you well that he that has come to knowledge when is it this half sword. I intend and I will know enter and strike all said two modes of the half sword. I want you to know how excellent that is and perfect play. I know the time and those that do not do such art and who are not able to understand time, more half time and who are not able to be true players; Being God, that when I play with other players that I still turn to touch, but not touching upon what he knows, but touching on strength.
This is because he is not founded in the art of half sword. Because I say to you, that when you teach your students for your honor, and for usefulness of the principles when you have given the forward eighth or ninth play. You will divide some of these half sword between half and other botte.
And in this manner you will make good practices and strong players and remain in strong botte, doing but for that learning of skirmishing. Because gioco largo wide play teaches skirmishing and narrow teaches to remain strong in all botte and make good courage to said students. Because first you must have habits and in this manner he will do well and be a firm player.
I comfort you that keep these orders. But not to watch, that these narrow or botte are in the small brochiero that still is very much able to do with the single sword as I have said. And in the two handed sword, the sword and targa and large brochiero. And also in the sword and rotella as well as hafted weapons as I have do ne, as you will do, if you do not forget. This is a perfect combat for wounding. That is, the sword and Bolognese dagger. Note when teaching someone this art of wounding that it is more natural.
That is mandritti, roversi or stoccate. But I will say more of other attacks. Now note that I have a good imagination and I have harvested the parries more brief and more useful for one who must combat. First you will be settled with the left foot forward and your dagger in your left hand in the porta di ferro stretta. In your right hand hold your sword in the coda lunga e alta. Keep your arms extended and tight. Note that whenever possible, I want you to be the first to attack. But do not let him be the first to attack you. I want you to take this order: that is throw a rising falso at his sword hand or to the dagger, yet remain with your left foot forward.
One foot following the other. In this manner you will be strong against an attack to the head or leg. If he attacks to the leg you will put the right edge of your dagger to the attack. That is turn the point of the dagger towards the ground and parry the mandritto of the enemy. In a single time pass with the right leg into a gran passo opposite his left side and give a mandritto to his leg going into a porta di ferro larga with your dagger in the guardia di testa.
Then if your enemy throws a mandritto or a roverso at the head, or even a stoccata, I want you to make a rising strike with the false edge of your sword against his sword and follow it with a mandritto to the leg. With this cut you will move the right foot a little forward and immediately throw a roverso.
Follow this with moving the right foot in a gran passo to the rear of the left. The roverso should go to the sword arm of your enemy. Then the dagger will return to the porta di ferro and your sword will be in the coda lunga e alta. In this manner you have returned to the same guard as used at first and await another turn to attack.
Being in the coda lunga e alta with your sword and dagger as aforementioned, if your enemy throws a mandritto at your head, you will move your right foot strongly forward parrying with the sword and you will attack his side with your dagger. When you make this parry the sword hand should be extended and the point guarding towards the earth and for your defense throw a mandritto fendente with your right foot flying back and in this manner your sword will be in the cinghiara porta di ferro and your dagger in the guardia di testa.
When you are like this if your enemy another attack, high or low, move your right foot opposite the left side of your enemy and strike a falso at the attack and give a roverso to the leg. Then throw a rising falso followed by right for back for the hand you will make a half turn o f the fist on both hands and you will be in the coda lunga e alta with the sword and porta di ferro alta with the dagger.
This with both arms extended. Having your sword in the coda lunga e alta and your dagger in the porta di ferro , I want you to feel out your enemy with a stoccadella that makes a draw. But prepare if he does not make an attack. Then throw the right foot opposite his left side and throw a rising falso dritto to the dagger hand and in this manner you be in the coda lunga a stretta again with your dagger in the guardia di testa.
Then if your enemy throws a mandritto or a roverso at the head or leg or a thrust to the face, at all of these attacks you will throw a mandritto traversato with the right leg going to the rear with a traverse. In this manner the sword will go into the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta with your dagger in the guardia di testa. Then if your enemy responds to this attacks pass your right foot forward and strike with a rising falso at the attack. You will be in the porta di ferro stretta with your dagger in the guardia di testa.
Your arms will be extended to the right side of your enemy and you will stop in this guard. As you go into this third part you will have your sword in the porta di ferro stretta and your dagger in the guardia di testa. But I want you to employ in this term, that is you will go to one foot hunting the other. Maximally the left will shove the right forward, nevertheless knocking the falso and slicing the right of the arm or the leg or the face, demands an elza e tira.
Going in this manner, he will gather strength to take any attack. Low or high, but supposing he attacks with a fendente or a mandritto tondo to the head, or a mandritto sgualembrato, against these mandritti you will hurl the right foot a little opposite his right side and parry the attack in the guardia di faccia with the point of your sword to the right of the face of your enemy, in the same time, passing left and give a mandritto with the dagger and a roverso with the sword.
In this manner your sword will end in the coda lunga e distesa with your left leg forward and your dagger in the porta di ferro alta and formed well. Here you will stop with the eye fixed on the two hands of your enemy. For he is in need of the other part where you make it strong. That is to say he strongly strikes with a ponta, or a mandritto imbroccata that one waits for well. Being in the coda lunga e distesa as in part four and your dagger in the porta di ferro stretta, there is a need to keep this order, that is to feel out with a falso to the hand of the dagger or the sword and to overcome him you will give him a strong attack.
Know that when you attack with a falso the right foot hunts out the left and having such order goes strongly attached to this thing. Now being counter to the right hand, to the leg, or to the head or a stoccata, in such time that he attacks, you will hurl the right foot opposite the left part of your enemy and throw a rising falso traversato at the arm or the hand with a roverso turning under in the fashion of a molinello and your left leg follows the right to the rear.
You will wait in the coda lunga e stretta with your dagger in the guardia di testa. You will embellish this with your arms and legs being well formed. Being in the coda lunga e stretta and with your dagger in the guardia di testa, here I want you to throw a half mandritto at his dagger hand.
Do this because your enemy attacks you. But guard well and throw a shot to the head stepping forward four or six inches with your right foot opposite his right side and give a roverso to his right leg. Parry his attack with your dagger and hurl the right foot behind the left. In this retreat make a stoccata at his face under your dagger. In this manner you will go into the coda lunga e alta with your dagger in the porta di ferro stretta. Your left foot will be forward and you will settle in this guard well. Now look well to the sixth part and remember to remain in the coda lunga and your dagger in the porta di ferro stretta.
Here you will be attentive, waiting for your enemy so you may throw a mandritto at the head or the leg. But first I will say that if he throws the mandritto you will parry with the right edge of your dagger and with the parry you will hurl your right foot opposite the left side of your enemy. Then you will give a strong ponta to his flank. Or you will issue a half mandritto at the leg. But watch carefully when you issue the ponta for you should for your defense give a roverso tramazzone in your flying back with your left leg behind the right.
You will throw the roverso with a molinello going outside your right leg and your sword should not pass into the coda lunga e alta. Your dagger should go into the porta di ferro stretta. Note now that if he threw a mandritto to your leg it is necessary in your parry you issue a roverso while pulling back your right foot and with the roverso you will throw with your left side. That is you will throw it from the left hip.
This demands a roverso sgualembrato and watch that your sword goes not into the coda lunga e alta. Your dagger will go into the porta do ferro stretta with the arm and leg well formed. It is good that you remember to remain with the dagger in the porta do ferro stretta. But with the sword in the coda lunga e alta as aforementioned.
If your enemy throws a mandritto at your left leg, I want you to know more about parrying in this manner. You will that that in parrying with the said edge of the dagger turning it to the outside of the left leg with a half turn of the fist. Then you will parry with the false and in this parry you will pass the right foot forward and thrust with a ponta or throw a mandritto at the head or leg.
And then with this mandritto you will throw a mandritto traversato at the sword arm with the right foot moving behind the left and traversing a little. In this manner your sword will move into the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta with your dagger in the guardia di testa. You should know that in all these parries and attacks that for your defense you should take two or three steps to the rear. Then make a half turn of the first and settle into the coda lunga e alta with the dagger in the porta di ferro.
Wait for your enemy who will attack to the leg where I want you to give an alternate parry than the above. Now watch that you are in this guard that I said in part four. You will be attentive for going to attack wit this mandritto to the leg I want you to defend in this manner. Know that when he throws a mandritto you will give a falso to the sword under his mandritto and you will slice with a roverso to the right thigh with the dagger going into the guardia di testa. For your defense you will throw a rising falso.
Escape with your right foot behind and you will settle as said in part eight. At this same mandritto to the leg that your enemy throws, I want you to give a falso to him, that is with the right edge. And in that same giving of the falso you will throw a fendente to the head with your right foot passing forward. In this manner your sword will end in the porta di ferro stretta and your dagger in the guardia di testa. For your defense you will hurl your right foot back and throw out a rising ponta to the face under your dagger and you will make a half turn of the fist and settle in the porta di ferro alta waiting for your enemy who will throw a roverso to the head or leg.
Now watch that you are in the coda lunga e alta with your dagger in the porta di ferro alta as previously mentioned in part nine. Here it is considered that if your enemy throws a roverso to the head or leg, on this roverso have courage for I want you to in the time he throws the roverso to throw your left foot close by the right and you will do a pass to his roverso and passing said roverso he will not be able to harm you. Then you will move your right foot strongly forward and throw a roverso to the leg and you sword will not pass into the guardia di coda lunga e stretta.
Your dagger will go into the guardia di testa. For your defense you will throw a stoccata to the face of your enemy, under the dagger, following with the right foot to the rear. In this manner you will return to the aforementioned guard, mastering it, that is with your left foot forward and with your sword and dagger useable in this manner. And you will set yourself with your legs and arms as well formed as possible. Know that being in the coda lunga e alta with the left foot forward as said before, here you will be well formed and you will press your opponent in this manner.
That is you will throw rising falsi with your sword in this manner for strength if he throws a roverso to the head or leg. Know that in this roversi you will parry with the right edge of the dagger turning the point of the dagger to the ground. That is the inside of your person. And you will move your right foot forward opposite the left side of your enemy and you will give another roverso sgualembrato to his head. In this manner your sword will go in the coda lunga e distesa and your dagger in the guardia di testa. For your defense you will throw a falso or a stoccata following with your right foot to the rear of the left.
In this manner you will keep your sword and dagger as aforementioned well settled. Being in the coda lunga e alta with the left foot forward and your dagger in porta di ferro you will be in harmony. For if your enemy throws a falso at your dagger hand I want you to make a half turn of the fist downwards and it will go into the coda lunga e stretta and you will defend the falso with the right edge of the dagger.
In this defense you will move the right foot forward and make a rising thrust to his chest or make a half mandritto to his leg that he has forward. And for your defense you will throw two or three steps to the rear and you will settle in the coda lunga e alta with your arm and legs well formed and the dagger in the porta di ferro stretta. Know that in this place you should take three or four steps back. This I would do for reason that when you attack with a cut your enemy may very well want to withstand a second blow so he can, in his fury, deliver one to you.
But if you pull back by the said number of steps, in that time his anger will diminish and he will not assault you with the same fury. Therefore do not forget. Know now that I will give you a combat of the single dagger, that is a thing most useful and short. This is the same for one who comes against he who has a reading of arms.
I will give you the manner to do this more strongly than another when you come to prese. Note and do not forget. First you will settle with the right foot forward in the coda lunga e stretta. The left foot will be set in order close to the right, and never move the eyes from the dagger hand of your enemy. In this manner you will first give a thrust to the uncovered glove to the right side with your right hand. If he will have or not have much worse for him, you will turn with that a thrust in mezzo mandritto for the same manner.
Your dagger will end in the porta di ferro alta and then you will attack the enemy's head. You will hurl your right foot a little towards his right side. You will find in this pas his attack with the right edge of the dagger in the guardia di intrare and parrying the same you will hurl the left foot strongly to his right side and engage his right arm with your left hand on the outside.
In Raffaello e Michelangelo queste scelte operative sembravano essersi definitivamente consolidate. Traduzione: Andrea Scorza Barcellona. Battista Sgava, , II, pp. Benedetto Varchi, nella prima delle quali si dichiara un Sonetto di M. Sulle critiche a Michelangelo a causa della mancanza di variazione nelle pose di queste figure, Cfr. Bernardino Campo,pittore cremonese,Cremona: Christoforo Draconi, Notizie dei professori del disegno, 7 v. Als ich can.
In: Predella, n. Les circonstances de ce voyage sont bien connues. Des prisonniers qui partagent la cellule avec le saint, il maintiendra les trois personnages assis au fond. Quand, en revanche, il. Rien de commun avec Suavius. Bruxelles, Mercator, Version italienne : Viaggio a Roma.
I pittori europei nel Cinquecento. Milan, Jaca Book, Helbig — S. Goltzius, ; traduction et notes par J.
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Hubaux — J. Oger — D. Denhaene, Bruxelles, , p. Trecento di cam. Denhaene, Lambert Lombard. Bober — P. Rubinstein, Renaissance Artists and Antique Sculpture. UUB st f Pour une illustration de la tapisserie,cf. Rubinstein, op. Jules Romain. Tapisseries et dessins. Paris, Grand Palais, , cat. Jestaz avec la collab. Bacou, Paris, , V, p. Sur le Grand Scipion, voir aussi, en dernier lieu, T. Jules Romain, op. Giuliano, Arco di Costantino, Milan, , avec toutes les illustrations. Campbell — L. Bettarini — P.
Bijdragen tot de kunstgeschiedenis der Nederlanden, Gand, , I, p. Disegno e disegni, Rimini, , p. Marlier, op. Denhaene, Lambert Lombard, op. Hollstein, op. Bober — R. VI, , 71, p. Der Statuenhof des Belvedere im Vatikan. Akten des internationalen Kongresses zu Ehren von R. Winner, B. Andreae, C. Pietrangeli, Mayence, , p. M Dacos, Fiamminghi a Roma Dacos — B. Une autre version est reproduite dans N. Checa Cremades et B. Renaissance et humanisme…, op. Pour la gravure, ibid. Lampson, op. Lambert Lombard peintre…, op. Baudouin, R. Vanderhoeght, Het Rockoxhuis Antwerpen, Anvers, , p.
Hendrick, Lambert Lombard et son temps. Denhaene, op. Sacramento, Crocker Art Museum. Londres, Victoria and Albert Museum. Naples, Museo Nazionale. Jadis Padoue, Eremitani, chapelle Ovetari. Stockholm, Nationalmuseum. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum-Stichting. Anvers, Rockoxhuis. Why is the Vatican Laocoon fig. Why would a man who is being, together with his two sons, mortally wounded, not stand up, or, on the contrary, fall down completely?
And why does this unnatural position, after all, does not seem so strange to us? Let us remember how the story goes. The literary tradition related to the myth of Laocoon, as in the case of so many mythological characters, does not maintain a single version, but rather develops many variations introduced by the numerous authors who have treated the subject. According to this version, the Trojans debated about what was to be done with the wooden horse left by the Greeks in front of the city gates; some suggested burning it, others throwing it from the cliffs, others still dedicating it to Minerva.
The third view finally prevailed, and the Trojans, believing that the war was over, held a high festival to celebrate the supposed peace. At that moment, however, two serpents sent by Apollo appeared and attacked Laocoon and one of his sons. The portent alarmed Aeneas and his family to such an extent, that they decided to escape immediately. There is no hint, therefore, of any demerit on the part of the victim.
If Arctinus, however, does not attribute any guilt to Laocoon, in the 5th century BC a hubris is introduced at the root of the events which would result in his death: in a poem originally composed by Bacchylides and recorded by Servius ad. The idea of guilt seems to have been retained in a tragedy by Sophocles on the Laocoon subject, from which, unfortunately, only a few fragments have subsisted. Also as in Vergil,Laocoon is immolated together with his two sons. The main reference to the Laocoon myth, however, the one which has made it so familiar to modern and contemporary people and by which it is normally identified, is undoubtedly in the second book of the Aeneid.
The hero tells how the Achaean sailed to the island Tenedos so that the Trojans would believe that they were returning to Greece, but instead deposited before the city gates the insidious wooden horse, whose internal cavity bore armed warriors. The Trojans were unsure about what to do with the simulacrum when Laocoon, a priest of Neptune, rushing inflamed before a crowd, exhorted his countrymen not to trust the Greeks and their gifts.
As pointed out by R. His action of flinging his spear at the horse, characteristic of a strong man in his prime, reinforces the impression of a firm and decided personality. In this same moment, however, Sinon suddenly appears with his hands tied,and with a deceitful speech,seeks to convince the Trojans to introduce the wooden horse inside the city walls: he states that the Greeks had left the simulacrum as an offering to placate Minerva,offended by the theft of the Paladium; if they destroyed it, their city would be ruined; if, however, they brought it within their walls,Troy would attain the most glorious future.
Sinon had practically convinced the crowd, when a terrible event occurred to give credence to his tale in the eyes of the Trojans: while Laocoon immolated a bull before the sacred altars, two monstrous serpents appeared on the sea, coming from Tenedos. The Trojans were then convinced that Laocoon was killed because he had offended Minerva by throwing his spear against the sacred simulacrum, and at last brought it into the city walls. Believing that the war was over,they celebrated the supposed peace. When night fell and the Trojans were asleep, Sinon opened the horse and liberated the warriors hidden inside it, while the Greek fleet.
Meanwhile, the battle begins; Aeneas, awakened by the cries of the people and the sound of the weapons, prepared to fight and join his countrymen. The hero then sees Helen, who, frightened, tries to hide; furious, he wants to kill her, when his mother appears to him in a second vision, again exhorting him to abandon Troy — doomed to destruction — and escape.
Aeneas rushes home, and, taking on his shoulders his father Anchises — who holds in his hands, not stained with blood, the penates — begins his flight accompanied by his wife Creusa and his son Iulus. While proceeding to the city gates,nonetheless,Aeneas realised that his wife was no longer with them; leaving his father and son in a safe place, he returned to look for her, when her specter suddenly appeared to him in a third vision: the gods would not allow her to accompany him — she says — but he should escape to the distant land where the calm Tiber flows, where he would found a new reign and deserve a royal wife.
Returning to the place where he had left his family, Aeneas finds many other countrymen, who were ready to follow him. They all set off,then,on the long journey which would take them to Italy. Although the cause-effect relationship between the attack of the serpents and Aeneas flight consequently the foundation of Rome is not, there. The high relief given to the laocoontian episode in comparison to the previous texts, on the other hand, may be explained by the fact that Vergil was writing a poem to celebrate Rome, and therefore trying to accentuate every element that concerned its mythical origins.
Through a metaphor of maximum density and poetic value, i. So far, it is not difficult to understand why this political interpretation of the myth found such a fertile ground when, in January , the statuary group was exhumed up on a Roman hill, the Colle Oppio. According to a letter written in by Francesco da Sangallo, at the time only eleven years old, Michelangelo himself went to the site of the excavations; Francesco also tells us that his father, Giuliano, immediately. He also names the artists who carved it: the Rhodians Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus.
Those names would re-emerge when, in , a spectacular group of sculptures, signed by those same artists, were found in Sperlonga. Both in the times of Vergil and in , therefore, the Laocoon could symbolize the rebirth of Rome; its political potential was certainly noticed by Giuliano della Rovere, then Pope Julius II, who promptly acquired the sculptures, to the detriment of many illustrious gentlemen — including the Cardinal of S. Pietro in Vincoli, the Cardinal of S. Giorgio and the Conservatori themselves, who intended to place them up in the Capitolio.
The first letters written about the exhumation of the group invariably mention Vergil,Pliny,and the fact that Laocoon was performing a sacrifice. So does Bonsignore Bonsignori, Giovanni Sabadino degli Arienti and Filippo Casavecchia, for example, in letters written less than a month after the discovery of the group. The rhyming of both. On the left Laocoon appears being attacked by the serpents, having next to him an altar on which a calf is burning. His two sons, still encircled by the reptiles, lie lifeless on the ground. In his seminal article of — Pagan Sacrifice in the Italian Renaissance — Fritz Saxl points out the high interest Italian artists took in the representation of Pagan sacrifices, which were not conceived as incompatible with Christian beliefs.
The fundamental importance of the sacrificial ritual — and its representation — has been amply recognised in diverse fields of investigation,be it theological or anthropological,historical or artistic, philosophical or sociological. A moment of maximum unity between men and divinity, it is placed at the epicentre of every religious ritual, and contains in itself the elements.
Christianity inherited, both from Paganism and Judaism, the fundamental concept of sacrifice, and many different characteristics belonging both to sacrificial ceremonies and conceptions from the Graeco-Roman and Jewish world are preserved in Christian tradition. In such images Pagan sacrifice was in general introduced sotto voce in the composition, more frequently under the guise of some decorative feature in the architectonic structure simulating either painting or sculpture. Warburg referred many times to the generic insertion of ancient scenes en grisaille, usually simulating reliefs,in works representing Christian scenes.
For example, Saint Sebastian, at our right hand side, wears a vine garland in his hair, in a clear allusion to the ancient Bacchic rituals. Saint George, on our left hand side, offers, with his left hand, three fruits — probably pomegranates — to the Virgin. Although these fruits constitute, in Christian iconography, a symbol of the Resurrection, they are not traditionally related to St George, but rather to another dragonkiller,i. The analogy is confirmed by the clear quotation of the celebrated bronze statue of Hercules, also holding the Hesperides fruits, which since the end of the 15th century had stood in the Conservatori Palace, in Rome.
Diverse figures relate directly back to classical models: the two soldiers who flank Christ are probably inspired by the horse-breakers of Monte Cavallo, while the remaining torturers were probably taken from battle scenes of ancient Roman sarcophagi. Crowning this real pasticcio of ancient quotations — to use the expression employed by Blume — the engraver chose, for the figure of Christ, nothing less than the central figure of the famous Vatican Laocoon, almost exactly copied by the artist from the group.
The utilisation of the laocoontian model goes beyond the pure wish of formal quotation from the Antique. What makes the identification between Christ and Laocoon possible is the sacrificial nature. Just like other traditional Hebrew types such as Isaac or Melchisedek, Laocoon here functions as a Pagan typological allusion to Christ and his sacrifice.
In Italy, from the second quarter of the 13th century onwards — namely with the Crucifixions of Giunta Pisano and Cimabue — the model of the dead Christ on the cross was practically omnipresent. Michelangelo breaks this tradition by representing him alive, twisted and suffering. This is also the answer to the question formulated at the beginning of this paper, i. If one looks closely enough, there can be no doubt that the rectangular object on which the priest is sitting down is, in fact, a sacrificial altar.
The two texts emphasize the fact that the Laocoon group is so deeply rooted both in our visual collective memory and cultural repertoire that it takes a scholarly work to actually rescue its original meaning and connotations. Settis opens his book by quoting the letter in which the Italian poet Cesare Pavese compares himself to Laocoon: Io sono come Laocoonte, he writes only six days before committing suicide. Settis points out that even though the Laocoon group constitutes a Pathosformel, it remains suspended between the crystallization of art and the very authentic pains of life.
Which one is ours? Certainly it is the expression of suffering which seems to captivate most of viewers nowadays, as well as the nature of this expression in the footsteps of the debate generated by Winckelmann, Lessing and Goethe in the XVIII century. Maybe one of the main elements we have inherited from the conception according to which Laocoon is an innocent sacrificial victim is the fact that, for most contemporary observers, he looks like an essentially good man suffering the arbitrarity of fate. Moreover, his visual identification with the image of Christ on the cross seems to have forever transformed him into a kind of saint, just like in the 20th century the atheist Ernesto Che Guevara would be sanctified by the — maybe unintentional, or maybe not — click of a local photographer when he was killed in the Bolivian jungles.
In: Natur und Antike in der Renaissance, Cat. Frankfurt am Main: , p.
The Fragments of Sophocles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3 vols. According to the reconstruction made by C. Berlim: Philologische Untersuchungen, v. Based on these last words, Robert concludes that in this version both sons die Robert, , p. Gubbio: Gubbio Scuola Tipografica, , pp. In: -. Studi di poesia latina in onore di Antonio Traglia. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, v. The Myths of Hyginus.
Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, , p. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern,, part 1. Panofsky in Early Netherlandish Painting. Cambridge-Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2 vols. Aby Warburg. An intellectual Biography. London: The Warburg Institute, , p. Renaissance master bronzes from the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
For an hypothesis according to which it was commissioned to Moderno by the Cardinal Grimani, cf. Die Bronzeplastiken. Statueten, Reliefs und Plaketten. Vienna: Anton Shroll, , p. Similarities with the version given to the right arm of the Trojan priest by the Montorsolian restoration of may suggest a later date, although that could be by no means later than , the.
Gnomon, 63, 4 , pp. Vatican Museums, Belvedere. Miniature of the Aeneid representing the Laocoon episode. Drawing representing the death of Laocoon. Destroyed during the Second World War. Sacrificial Scene. Chicago, Art Institute. Sacrifice to Aesculap. Originally made for the tomb of Girolamo della Torre and his son Marco Antonio. Presently in Paris, Louvre. Madonna dei Bentivoglio. Bologna, San Giacomo Maggiore.
The Redeemer. London, National Gallery. Sacra Conversazione. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Crucifixion drawing. London, British Museum. Vatican Museums, Belvedere detail. Un confronto intellettuale. Sottoscrive invece senza riserve il Buona notte si. Dopo tanti fastidiosi appelli per una rivalutazione impossibile, chi non si sentiva disposto ad augurare, col Longhi, la buonanotte al signor Fattori?
Si identificano qui i primi dissensi. Pur appartenendo a generazioni successive, Longhi, nato nel ad Alba,nella provincia di Cuneo,e Argan,nato nel a Torino, condividono lato sensu una stessa cultura. Tutti i bambini di quegli anni si erano nutriti della morale civica di Cuore di Edmondo De Amicis, ambientato tra e nella Torino di Umberto I e Longhi conservava un bel ricordo di questo romanzo per ragazzi, secondo Gianfranco Contini. La questione era drammaticamente complicata a causa del prolungamento del bellicismo della I Grande Guerra nel nazionalismo fascista.
Dobbiamo trovare da soli la nostra giustizia. Come si disegnano, sullo sfondo di questo sostrato culturale comune, le esperienze formative dei due piemontesi? Appena laureato, nel , Longhi lascia Torino per inseguire con una borsa di studio la scuola di perfezionamento di Adolfo Venturi a Roma. Il critico letterario Giacomo Debenedetti, grande amico di Argan, definisce la sua esperienza di quegli anni come: un periodo di dialoghi appassionati, animati dalla tensione culturale promossa dal Croce, dal Gentile e anche in parte dal Salvemini.
Avevano conosciuto Gobetti, forse Gramsci, di cui a noi era impossibile conoscere gli scritti proibiti. Croce era per noi il nostro vero maestro: nei rari ma sempre attesi incontri non ci parlava di politica ma solo di problemi della cultura. A questo singolare parallelo tra Bisanzio e le diverse forme di totalitarismo del XX secolo, Longhi ritorna ancora, nel , per spiegare a un incauto storico nordamericano, E. Non si tratta qui di provare a stilare un inventario delle differenze. Inoltre, Longhi fu sempre reticente a ogni analogia esplicita tra la forma visiva e la teologia.
Partendo da tali premesse, il Rinascimento, agli occhi di Longhi, non avrebbe potuto non risultare totalmente trasfigurato. Ogni tentativo di risposta a questa domanda presuppone affrontare la questione della natura del rapporto tra i diversi livelli di significazione che vi convivono. Di certo Argan non incorre in una critica riduttrice del pensiero hegeliano.
La distinzione giusta era invece tra due concezioni del colore: timbrico o qualitativo in Michelangelo, tonale o. Per Longhi, invenzione formale e concetto rimangono, per natura, categorie eterogenee e, in potenza, reciprocamente ostili. Proust, meglio di qualunque altro esempio, mostra come si distinguono queste maniere. Non appartiene a questo esercizio di ritratti in contrapposizione cedere allo spirito di paragone. Se ci fosse spazio per una conclusione, sarebbe quella che ognuno di loro incarna,non solo una traiettoria esemplare,ma un tipo di intellettuale e forse perfino un tipo di intelligenza.
I bizantini di Longhi, come. Il fenomeno era serio. Traduzione italiana di Elisabetta Santoro. Milano, Electa, Oltre ai testi citati, con ampia bibliografia, cfr. Roma, Riuniti, Si veda anche il sito Memofonte diretto da Paola Barocchi e, al suo interno,. Sul gran numero di studiosi che gli fanno omaggio nel ,si vedano gli Studi in Onore di Giulio Carlo Argan, Roma, Multigrafica Editrice, , 2 volumi, a cura dei suoi discepoli, con la presentazione di Maurizio Calvesi. Uno schieramento di parti avverse, ostili, ora apertamente ora subdolamente aggressive, in cui tutti fummo coinvolti e che, se si.
A cura di Laura Laureati.
QFIAB 85 (2005)
Milano, Archinto, , p. Casabella, 73, gennaio Pinelli, Nel segno di Giano. Roma, Carocci editore, , p. Opere Complete,vol. Firenze, Sansoni, pp. Opere Complete vol. Ripubblicato in Studi e note, Roma, Bocca, ,pp. Apud F. Dove vai? Opere Complete, vol. XIV, Firenze, Sansoni, , pp. Roca Di Amicis, Roma, Riuniti, , pp. Pubblicato nel nella raccolta Rime e Ritmi. Apud Eugenio Garin, Cronache di filosofia italiana, Bari, Laterza, ,.
Menu di navigazione
Proporzioni, III, , pp. Firenze, Sansoni, , pp. Garin, Cronache di filosofia italiana, Bari, Laterza, , 2 volumi; A. Citato da F. Opere Complete, Firenze, Sansoni, , 2. E occorreva forse meno di questa decantazione zelante degli elementari figurativi per rincamminare la pittura italiana? XIV, Firenze, Sansoni, , p. Studi e note, Roma, Bocca, ,p. Debenedetti, Saggi Critici, Mondadori, Nuova Rivista storica,XI,,pp. Panofsky, Studi di Iconologia. Torino, Einaudi, Roma, Bocca, Il Rinascimento da Brunelleschi a Brueghel. Milano: Feltrinelli, , p.
Lucia, Intellettuali italiani del secondo dopoguerra. Impegno, crisi, speranza, Napoli, Guida, , p. Opere complete, vol. VII, Firenze: Sansoni, p. I, Firenze: Sansoni, , pp. I, Firenze, Sansoni, , p. Roberto Longhi nella cultura del nostro tempo, op. In, Studi e note, Roma, Bocca, ,p. Milano, Feltrinelli, Ricerche sulla pittura veneta i X, Firenze, Sansoni, , p.
Argan, M. Beiser org. In quella del. Ripubblicato in Ritratti di opere e di artisti,a cura di A. Roca Di Amicis. Roma, Riuniti, , pp. Ripubblicato nella stessa raccolta postuma a cura di A. Ripubblicato in Ritratti di opere e di artisti, cit. Da, casta parens, Iessaea propago, Da, virgo, aeternum virgo, quae sola furentum Nequitiamsacropraestascompescerepartu, 5 Da, praecor, et Veneres et quos malesana uetustas Aligeros finxit dementia numina fratres Exturbare, nouo longe et dispellere cantu.
Fertur in antiquis Peniaeque Porique hymanaeis NatusAmor,natauixdegenitrice,frequenti 10 Dum mensa ebria inter se celebrant conuiuia Diui Stellato in folio, uiridique Diespitris horto, Dum mens ebria Caelitibus, dum nectare dulcis Et dulci Ambrosia saturis pulcherrima rerum Quasgignisit,fasiamtumobuersaturimago. Altera de pelago, pharetrati mater Amoris Nascitur et Paphias olim sibi uendicat arces, Aegyptumque altasque Erycino in uertice sedes. Verum alias etiam Veneres ambage retenti Falsorumdiuumpriscicecinerepoetae, 20 Quis uarios et ludo submittere amores Coepere et uariis implere poemata monstris.
Hinc Cypro exiliunt puerorum multa uolantum Agmina, quae rutilis facibus, quae corpore nudo Quaequearcuetuariaterguspulsantepharetra 25 Circumeant terras, maria, aera, aethera, Caelum. Vt quemquam tetigere furit sic perdita cursu Phoebeo ut perhibent quomdam Peneia Daphne. Sic Phoeben stimulant petere Endymionis amati Congressumetceleresfirmaresubaetherebigas.
Scilicet in furias ignemque incurrere diuos Finxerunt quoniam pecudum uolucrumque natantumque Omne genus ruere in Venerem inspexere, hominesque Propeterea et bella et caedes inferre cruentas. Quando etiam infernas magno inflammatus amore Coniugis ereptae est ausus tentare latebras 45 Threicius uates. Neptunique alta propago, Pirithoum Stygias fidum ut sequeretur ad umbras Lucida Taenarei subiit penetralia Ditis. Sed quid ego ambages uana aut commenta secutus? AdsummamspeciesVenusest,moxindeCupido 50 Exoritur: quoniam spem cupit ipse potiri, Atque frui sperat spes est qua viuit amator.
Causa bonoque, bonique umbrae reddenda; quod in se Splendeat inque animo facili vestigia firmans Haereatactutumetstimuleturavaravoluntas 55 Et caeca illa quidem claro sed lumine mentis Ducta, boni extremam conatur tangere metam. Si primum fontemque boni summumque tonantem Ardes ingenti conatu ingentibus alis QuastibineccaeranecfiloDaedalusolim 60 Aptarit firmo sed glutine mater amoris Alma fides casti flammatos feruidus axes Egredere et pietas tibi nomina fecerit ardens Atque amor atque charis plausu celebrata frequenti.
Si rerum species iam contemplator ab alta Namque ubi membrorum vultus discordia concors Fulserit et grata fuerit compage revincta Ipsa oculos afflat subito celerique meatu Labitur affecti tacita ad penetralia cordis: 80 Idque trahit ueluti chalybem Magnesia cautes: Et tractum incendit generatque in pectore flammam Illecebris fotam placidis gratoque decore. Temporis at paruo spatio decor ille recedit, Disperitetflammaintenueseuanidafumos. Praeceditque etiam nam ni fax illa retenti Seminis urgeret non surgeret ipsa libido. Sed parce ad sobolem necque non meta ipsa uoluptas.
Nam si plus nimio cupis oblectarier inde Surgit amarities et mille incomoda uitae. Scilicet hanc legem primaeua ab origine rerum 95 Affixit natura parens mortalibus inque Perpetua incidit solido ex adamante columna. Ut semper multos uenus immoderata dolores Afferat innumeras labes morbosque necemque Etcuruaeantediempretendatdamnasenectae. Quid tibi? Momento extinguit uno Quidquid anhelanti conatu exhauseris horae Dimidio et celeri refugit post terga volatu.
Nec repetita potest ulla retinerier arte: Praeterit, ut rapidus montano e uertice torrens. Effugit et Scythico Borea et uiolentior Euro. Ac ueluti Cribro si lympham inferre pararis Quo magis infundas tanto magis effluet humor. Sicetacquamfractisfundoquecarentibusurnis At qui nam extiterit pharetrati fructus amoris Cum tela in uacuum defixit plurima pectus: Cumque ossa in cinerem face multa omnesque medullas Verterit Argiuo periit cum pergamos igni Testis et Inachias quae multa est flamma per urbes Digressa et Lybicos etiam populata penateis.
Quid memorem infande iugulatum Agamemnona dextra Coniugis? Quid referam extinctam Boeotia ad arua furentum et Discerptam manibus nimio feruore puellam? Quid puerum manibus laniatum Acteona narrem? Testis Stesichoro uati cantata calyce. Testis est ipsa suos igneis quae ferre recusans Idaliam ambracio restinxit lampada fluctu. Etquiseruilemdoctusuersaretumultum Drymachus insano iugulum postponit amori.
Quaeque olim ad scopulos multorum ex ossibus albos Etcantuallectaetnatiuoinductafurore Et quae Circaeos Ithacensis turba furores Haurit et humanas facies exuta ferarum Induitur uultus, dominaeque ad iussa superbe Immundis stabulatur haris. Sic improba Gorgon In saxa, in marmor stupidos conuertit amantes. Sic transformatos habitus consuere uetusti Cultores sophiae, tenui mandare papyro. Seu qui Palladias arces tenuere biformi CecroperegnatasseuquitenuereCrotona Quos una instituit Smyrnae telluris alumnus Unde noua emersit mutandae fabula formae. Hinc Theodori atque hinc Graii Callisthenis ora Inque alios conuersa modos et in ora ferarum.
Illuc Thallides et Pantho cretus et alta. Ergo agite o Iuuenes spurcum ablegate furorem Quo brutum ex homine induitis quo Pergama quondam Arserunt quo iactat amans incendia, flammas. Sirenum a scopulis rapido discedite cursu [curru] Vela date ac nunquam uobis terra illa petenda est Circaeo praetensa sinu: nunquam antra [arva] Calypsus Intranda et nunquam Phorcynidos arua Medusae. Nunquam Ephyres portum si mens non laeua subite. Effugite et cursu celeri Sybaritida terram. Vnum etiam uobis Iuuenes praeque omnibus unum Praedicam, uestrae uobis si cura pudoris [salutis], Si casti vos tangit honos, si cura pudoris,.
Huc etenim nimium nimiumque nocentia monstra Migrauere truces Scyllaeque et Gorgones, atque Harpyiae in mediis posuere sedilia templis. Nec non quae Atlantem olim, et quae Titana parentem Agnorunt, arteis nec dedidicere vetustas, Semiferaeque etiam caprearum rupe recentis Mutauere domos Babylonis, et aurea tecta. Atque super sacra sidunt Acheloides aede Huc quantum Caerae sicula depromitur hybla, [herba] Huc huc Cecropius quicquid cogebat Hymettus. Moly ueni, ueniat districtus et ensis Ulyssei Constanti auertens magicos molimine cantus.
Vanaque sopiti ludens praestigia [insomnia] sensus, Et potis Idaliam glacie interspergere flammam. Si uobis natura suos iniecerit ignes, Nec sit pertesum thalami, nodique iugalis, Quaerite concessos diuina lege Hymenaeos. Prima autem fiat de moribus, ultima fiat Quaestio de forma, dotemque exquirite, qualem Antiquo in Latio, ueteri uel in Hellade mille Mille olim quaesita procis noua nupta parabat Quis non Euadnes citius caperetur amore Ut [Et] casto illius digito fuluum inderet aurum?
Protesilae tuam quis non uelit ante maritam Quam Leda genitam; quamuis pulcherrima, quamuis Et ratibus mille et bello repetita decenni? Aut quis non uilem mundi muliebris amictum, Et tenuem Cophinum priscae de more Sabinae Optarit potius casta cum coniuge secum Ferre Domum? Caelibe si uultis uitam traducere lecto Continuocastisrestinguitefontibusignes Et venerem [veneres] gelido, venerem [veneres] submergite ponto, Qua patet ad Boream semper glacialis Hiberne [Hyberne]: Pervolitent mentem atque oculos, facibusque, malignis Si instillare uelint tacitum in praecordia virus [Instillare velint tacitum in praecordia virus] Aligerifratrespuerorumturbauolantum, Vos subito ut leuibus difflauerit aera pennis Turba nocens duro pennas praecidire ferro.
Ferrea mens nulli Veneris obnoxia culpae, Ensis adest Iuuenes quo mollis in aera penna Dissecta [Dessecta] est: quo neruus agens uolucresque sagittae. Tum loca diuerso coelo quaerenda salubris Aeris in spatiis alia in regione manendum est, Ex animo ut citius facies uanescat [abolescat] amata. Nunquam luminibus committite [committere] lumina, quando Lenis amor, quem quis dudum frigere putaret Saepe arsit uultu conspecto, atque illice forma Exciuit flammas quantasque sub Ilio alto NonTenedosuiditnonincolaTyburisalti Spectauit, sceuo est cum Roma incensa Nerone [Neroni].
Vertenda est facies, nec blando uerba susurro Excipienda plagis quis non capiatur [caperetur] iniquis? Quas menti semper uacuae, semperque petenti IllecebramsensusfallaxAmathusiatendit? Spectandum instabile hoc quodcumque hic digitur [degitur] aeui Delitium [Delicium] et vanum et fluxum mistumque dolore. Sucurrantque nulla homini sincaera voluptas. Tormenti genus infelix: Acherontia turba Quod nunquam inspexit [aspexit]. Quo nullam sic affligere quemquam Fama est inferna durarum a sede sororum.
Ipse siti in mediis ardebat Tantalus undis, At nunquam refugas labris compreendere lymphas Olli posse datum. Sed cum se gurgite mersat Altius hic uasto et caua guttura pandit hiatu Humorem absorbens auidas sitis aspera fauces: Tum magis excruc[i]at. Neque non de fonte liquores P[r]ompsit acidalios gelido Venus ipsa, sed hausit [sumpsit] Ab calida Phlegethontis aqua quae semper opacos Conuoluit fumos igneis [ignes], incendia, flammas.
Nec uobis animo exciderit nec corde tenaci Quam multis olim exitium mortalibus ingens Attuleritregnaetdeleueritinclytacaecus Humana in mente exercens sua sceptra Cupido. Ante oculos etiam macies uersetur amicam In faciem succo tum successura salubri Cum senium rugas secum portarit aniles. Quod certe et morbi miseraeque incommoda vitae Ingeminant foeda ut confecta cadauera tabe. Hinc operae pretium est mortis meminisse tremendae Terribiliexcinditquaevitaegaudiafalce. Hinc subeant animi aeternae sub tartara poenae Quis Venus et Veneris male dulcia furta secuti Plectuntur: subeant aeternae gaudia palmae Innumeris ditata bonis.
Exempla virorum Accedant Venerem immundam qui uerberum [verbere] torto Et silice et rigido domuerunt saepe cubili Quique niuem insiliens Veneris superasse calores Dicitur, occurat, retegens noua semina fraudis Infernae. Nec non qui caeci spicula amoris Quique illas quondam sub inani pectore curas Consertas spinis, Erycinae munera saeuae Deludens se se in spinas destrusit acutas.
EtquifallacistempsereCupidinisarcus Obrepant menti: dum nudae corpora terrae Collidunt, Avidique ferunt ieiunia uentris. Vos etiam monitos Iuuenes iterumque iterumque Optarim obscenum casto ut pellaris amorem Pellitur ut clauo clauus, nec ad alta Platonis Vos specta [spectra] aetheriae aut Veneris simulachra relego. Hunc redama aspiciens [adspiciens] foedatos puluere crines Atque coronatam dumis pungentibus illam, Fronte[m] illam, nutu totum quae illustrat Olympum.
Quaeque catenatum nutu tremefecerit Orcum. Aspice [Adspice] purpureo madefactum sanguine corpus, Disiectumque latus, distentaque brachia, clauis Transfixasque manus, plantasque: sacrique cruoris Aspice [Adspice] multiplices undanti flumine riuos. Scilicet haec rerum onipotens, qui temperat orbem Matris Acidaliae flammas, puerumque perosus Pertulit,eriperetteteutdefaucibusOrci, Ut secum aeternae sequereris praemia [gaudia] palmae, Quae castus praebebit amor sine fine futurus Foelix, aeternoque arsurus munere foelix.
O que fica para ti? O que te resta? Nem, perseguida, pode ela ser retida por arte alguma. Por que eu relembraria Agamemnon degolado pela infame direita da esposa? Por que narraria Acteon dilacerado por obra dos jovens? Ah, Acteon que se exprimia por seus membros demasiado lacerados. Queres outra coisa quando te envolves a alma em diversos corpos? Francisci Pici Mirandulae domini,… De venere et cupidine expellendis carmen. Item ejusdem Laurentius et Geminianus hymni. A segunda, reproduzida no Googlebooks, foi editada por G. Bottari e T. XIV, Ou na poesia italiana dita fidenziana, i.
Odisseia, Erasmo a ela se refere em um de seus. Il 19 settembre , Giovanni Francesco Pico , Signore di Mirandola e conte di Concordia, firma a Roma una celebre epistola indirizzata a Pietro Bembo Nel , Pico e Bembo sono a Roma per ragioni molto diverse. Nel sposa Giovanna Carafa , figlia di Giovanni Tomaso Carafa, di Napoli, Conte di Maddaloni e di Cerreto, che, come il marito, difendeva fervorosamente Savonarola, con il quale mantenevano entrambi una corrispondenza epistolare. Era questa la ragione del suo soggiorno a Roma quando scrisse la prima epistola a Bembo, nel settembre Giovan Francesco scrive, quindi, una replica non datata alla risposta del grande letterato veneziano.
Maria Novella, vicario generale dei conventi domenicani in Italia e professore di esegesi biblica nello Studio fiorentino, cardinale Giovanni Dominici, che aveva appena sottomesso a Salutati il manoscritto del suo Lucula noctis. Infatti, Boccaccio fu oggetto della censura religiosa di S. Leone X non avrebbe fatto altro che approfondire questo culto delle sculture antiche.
In occasione della sua entrata a Roma nel per celebrare la sua assunzione alla cattedra pontificia,fu eretto davanti al palazzo del cardinale Andrea della Valle un arco di trionfo sul quale era stata disposta una specie di antologia delle sculture antiche conservate,fino ad allora,nelle collezioni romane. La maggior parte dei Cardinali sono iti ad vedere. Non deve sorprendere, quindi, che il bersaglio principale della cri. Le sculture di Venere a Roma e la preminenza della Venus felix Riesumata in un momento e in un luogo incerti,forse nei dintorni di S. La figura materna tiene nella mano sinistra qualcosa che Cupido,suo figlio, rappresentato sulla punta dei piedi, cerca di raggiungere.
Max accersiuit e romanis ruinis, ante paululum erutos, collocauitque in nemore citriorum illo odoratissimo constrato silice, cuius in meditullio Caerulei quoque Thybridis est imago colossea. Giulio II, Pontefice Massimo, le ha fatte. Il disegno attribuito a Antonio da Sangallo nella Albertina inv. Innanzitutto, le statue di Venere che ornavano i giardini e le collezioni di personaggi importanti della Curia. Accanto a queste due Veneri e al torso Ciampolini,. Pico aveva letto spesso in Plinio, Tacito, Svetonio e Tertulliano lo strategemma di Pompeo che, per sottrarsi alla vigilanza repubblicana, aveva eretto davanti al suo portentoso teatro un tempio.
E finalmente, e non meno importante: attaccare Venere era una forma di colpire indirettamente Giulio II, il cui nome era pubblicamente associato a quello di Giulio Cesare, e, attraverso di lui, le connessioni simbolico-genealogiche con la gens Iulia, di cui Venere era il vertice divino.
- Unbound Passion (Found Love Book 7);
- The Navigatio.
- Curriculum Vitae et Studiorum and Portfolio.
- Triple Shot (A Maggy Thorsen Mystery Book 7)?
Abbiamo fatto riferimento agli elogi entusiastici tessuti alla Venus felix da umanisti e poeti del Cinquecento, come pure a numerosi studi e opere che hanno trovato in essa origine o ispirazione. Questo giudizio sembra davvero affrettato. Come si sa, la tradizione mitografica attribuiva alle due Veneri origini diverse: mentre Esiodo Teog.
Sappiamo, pure, che si infastidisce quando, nel , viene a sapere che il Perugino aveva intenzione di rappresentare nuda ossia, come Venus aetheria la Venere che la sua inventio prevedeva vestita ossia, Vulgaris . Ad ogni modo, non si devono perdere di vista due fatti. Ma prima ancora di Correggio e di Gossart, fra il e il , il tema di Venere raggiunge il suo apice nella cultura figurativa del primo quarto del Cinquecento.
Non si conosce la data esatta o e nemmeno la lingua in cui fu originalmente scritta questa opera influente come affiora in un brano del trattato di Giuseppe Betussi, citato sotto e della quale furono subito fatte edizioni in italiano, spagnolo e francese. Il perche in tutte le generationi degli huomini e medesimi erono philosophi e sacerdoti, e non senza ragioni cosi era. Il suo rifiuto del culto dei modelli antichi era, del resto, sistematico e avveniva in diversi ambiti. Conclusione: la Venus felix e gli affreschi della Stanza della Segnatura La poesia di Pico si associa a una rottura epocale nella cultura dei litterati,rottura prodotta dal suo interno.
Alla fine del nostro percorso. Traduzione di Letizia Zini Antunes. Schmitt, Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola and his critique of Aristotle. Haia: Martinus Nijhoff, Vita Hieronymi Savonarolae, Firenze: Olschki, Giovio, Elogia veris clarorum virorum imaginibus apposita. Cito dalla traduzione italiana, Elogi degli Uomini Illustri, a cura di F. Minonzio,Torino: Einaudi, , p. Giovio, op. Descrittione di Tutta Italia di F. Sui rapporti fra Leandro Alberti e Pico, entrambi inquisitori terribili, cfr. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi.
Bologna: Bononia University Press, Bononiae: Benedictus Hectoreus, Vela,Torino: Einaudi, , pp. Art History, 11, 22, , pp. Bembo, Lettere, ed. Travi, 4 volumi, vol. Petri Bembi Veneti de imitatione liber unus. Basilae apud Io. Vide G. Santangelo ed. Firenze: Olschki, , Introduzione. New York, , reprint , Parte II, pp. Parigi, Aralia, Dellaneva ed. Torino: Loescher, e M. Ginevra: Droz, Mirabilia Romae editum Francisco Albertino Florentino. Lugdini: Romani Morin, , cap. De statuis ac picturis, p.
Haskell, N. Penny, Taste and the. The Lure of Classical Sculpture. Dionisotti, in P. Apud P. Convivium, , pp. IV e a Giovanni da Vigonza ep. Dazzi, Il Mussato preumanista, Venezia, Per il confronto con Giovannino a Mantova, cfr. Garin ed. Journal of the History of Ideas, 56, 1, , pp.
Branca, I Classici Mondadori, , p. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 28, , pp. Witt, Hercules at the Crossroads. Press, , p. Varese, Milano, Napoli, , pp. Mesoniat, Poetica Theologia. Roma, , p. Garfagnani e G. Picone, Verso Savonarola. Disponibile anche in rete. Huizinga, Erasmus , Hamburg, , pp. New York, , pp. Pietrangeli, Mainz, , pp. Si veda pure S. Deswarte-Rosa, in L. Marques org. Corsini, ed. Citato da P. Bober, Drawings after the Antique by Amico Aspertini. Natali, A. Cecchi, Andrea del Sarto, Firenze, , cat.
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